Internet of Things – 7th Semester : Rajasthan Technical University | Bikaner Technical University – Full Course (7CS4-01)
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IoT Enabling Technologies

IoT is enabled by several technologies including Wireless Sensor Networks, Cloud Computing, Big Data Analytics, Embedded Systems, Security Protocols and architectures, Communication Protocols, Web Services, Mobile internet and semantic search engines.

The main technologies we discuss here are:

  • Wireless Sensor Networks
  • Cloud Computing
  • Big Data Analytics
  • Communication Protocols
  • Embedded Systems
  1. Wireless Sensor Networks : A Wireless Sensor Network(WSN) comprises distributed devices with sensors which are used to monitor the environmental and physical conditions. A WSN consists of end nodes, routers and coordinators. End nodes have several sensors attached to them where the data is passed to a coordinator with the help of routers. The coordinator also acts as the gateway that connects WSN to the internet.

    Some Examples of Wireless Sensor Network are –

    ◉ Weather monitoring system
    ◉ Indoor air quality monitoring system
    ◉ Soil moisture monitoring system
    ◉ Surveillance system
    ◉ Health monitoring system

  2. Cloud Computing : Cloud computing is the on-demand delivery of IT resources over the Internet with pay-as-you-go pricing. Instead of buying, owning, and maintaining physical data centers and servers, you can access technology services, such as computing power, storage, and databases, on an as-needed basis from a various cloud providers like Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure etc..

    Characteristics of Cloud Computing are –

    ◉ Broad network access
    ◉ On demand self-services
    ◉ Rapid scalability
    ◉ Measured service
    ◉ Pay-per-use
    Cloud computing services are offered to users in different forms :
    Infrastructure-as-a-service(IaaS) : IaaS provides users the ability to provision computing and storage resources. These resources are provided to the users as a virtual machine instances and virtual storage.
    Platform-as-a-Service(PaaS) : PaaS provides users the ability to develop and deploy application in cloud using the development tools, APIs, software libraries and services provided by the cloud service provider.
    Software-as-a-Service(SaaS) : SaaS provides the user a complete software application or the user interface to the application itself.

  3. Big Data Analytics : Big data analytics is the method of studying massive volumes of data or big data. Collection of data whose volume, velocity or variety is simply too massive and tough to store, control, process and examine the data using traditional databases. Big data is gathered from a variety of sources including social network videos, digital images, sensors and sales transaction records. Some examples of big data generated by IoT are
    ◉ Sensor data generated by IoT systems.
    ◉ Machine sensor data collected from sensors established in industrial and energy systems.
    ◉ Health and fitness data generated IoT devices.
    ◉ Data generated by IoT systems for location and tracking vehicles.
    ◉ Data generated by retail inventory monitoring systems.
    Big data can be described by the following characteristics (5 V’s of big data):
    Volume : The size and amount of big data that corporations manage and analyze is referred to as volume.
    Velocity : Velocity refers to the rate at which businesses collect, retain, and manage data – for example, the amount of social media postings or search queries received in a given day, hour, or other time period.
    Variety : Unstructured data, semi-structured data, and raw data are only a few examples of the variety of data kinds available.
    Value : The value of big data comes from insight discovery and pattern detection, which leads to more productive operations, greater customer relationships, and other clear and provable economic benefits.
    Veracity : Veracity refers to the “truth” or accuracy of data and information assets, which is typically used to assess executive trust.

  4. Communication Protocols : Communication Protocols form the back-bone of IoT systems and enable network connectivity and coupling to applications. Communication Protocols allow devices to exchange data over network. It also Define the exchange formats, data encoding addressing schemes for device and routing of packets from source to destination.
    It includes sequence control, flow control and retransmission of lost packets.
  5. Embedded Systems : An Embedded System is a computer system that has computer hardware and software embedded to perform specific tasks. Embedded System range from low cost miniaturized devices such as digital watches to devices such as digital cameras, POS terminals, vending machines, appliances etc. It collects the data and sends it to the internet.
    Embedded systems used in :
    ◉ Digital camera
    ◉ DVD player, music player
    ◉ Industrial robots
    ◉ Wireless Routers etc.
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