The algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions, each of which has a clear meaning and can be performed with a finite amount of effort in a finite length of time. No matter what the input values may be, an algorithm terminates after executing a finite number of instructions.
We represent an algorithm using a pseudo-language that is a combination of the constructs of a programming language together with informal English statements. The ordered set of instructions required to solve a problem is known as an algorithm. The characteristics of a good algorithm are:

  • Precision – the steps are precisely stated (defined).
  • Uniqueness – results of each step are uniquely defined and only depend on the input and the result of the preceding steps.
  • Finiteness – the algorithm stops after a finite number of instructions are executed.
  • Input – the algorithm receives input.
  • Output – the algorithm produces output.
  • Generality – the algorithm applies to a set of inputs.

Example:


Write an algorithm to find out number is odd or even?

step 1: start
In step 2: input number
step 3: rem=number mod 2
step 4: if rem=0 then
print “number even”
else
print “number odd”
endif
step 5: stop

FLOWCHART:

A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents a workflow or process. A flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm, a step-by-step approach to solving a task.

  • Analyzing the problem statement means making the objective of the program clear in our minds like what the input is and what is the required output.
  • Sometimes the problems are of complex nature, to make them easier to understand, we can break down the problem into smaller sub-parts.
  • In order to save our time in debugging our code, we should first-of-all write down the solution on a paper with basic steps that would help us get a clear intuition of what we are going to do with the problem statement.
  • In order to make the solution error-free, the next step is to verify the solution by checking it with a bunch of test cases.
  • Now, we clearly know what we are going to do in the code. In this step, we will start coding our solution on the compiler.

Flowcharts

Uses of Flowcharts

  • Used in the documentation.
  • Used to communicate one’s solution with others, basically used for group projects.
  • To check out at any step what we are going to do and get a clear explanation of theflow of statements.
Flowchart components
  • Terminators

  • input/output

  • Process

  • Decision

  • Arrows
  • Connector


Example 1:
Suppose we have to make a flowchart for adding 2 numbers a and b.
Solution:

Summary

  • Flowcharts are the building block of any program written in any language.
  • Different shapes used to have different meanings.
  • Every problem can be represented in the form of a flow chart.
  • Sometimes, it becomes a bulky process to represent any program using a flowchart.
  • In those cases, try to find out the optimal solution to the given problem.

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